July 2023 is the hottest month on record, in Europe as well as globally, following what had already gone down in history as the hottest June in recorded history. In mid-July, Europe experienced the peak of this heatwave, with parts of Greece, eastern Spain, Sardinia, Sicily and southern Italy experiencing temperatures over 45°C.

Among the possible causes of the European heatwave, the Copernicus Climate Change Service identified the unusually high temperature of the Atlantic Ocean in June and early July, particularly near North America and Europe. At the same time, scientists warned of the possible collapse by mid-century of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) – which includes the Gulf Stream and plays a significant role in regulating the climate in Western Europe – if the current rate of CO2 emissions is not curbed.

Updated on 10 August with fresh data from Copernicus.

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